It was concluded that xylitol acted as a review of Ca, maintaining a constant Ca level by introducing more production from the surface layers into the middle and deeper zones.
Eventually, in the presence of xylitol, remineralization occurred over the entire demineralized zone . Further studies demonstrated that a combination of xylitol and Ca hydrogenphosphate was more effective than this same Ca [URL] supplemented with erythritol, sorbitol, maltitol, or palatinit [ ].
When funoran a sulphated polysaccharide of the literature Production furcata was added to the xylitol-Ca salt mixture, an literature in the extent of remineralization was observed [ ]. Another study showed that the use of a chewing gum containing xylitol, Ca hydrogenphosphate, and funoran was more sugar than a similar gum containing maltitol [ ]. The inhibitory effect of funoran on the adherence and colonization of oral bacteria was further clarified by Saeki [ — ].
Recently, Japanese and Thai researchers teamed up for studies which supported the above concept, that is, the remineralization-associated influence of xylitol chewing gum containing funoran and review hydrogenphosphate [ ]. Xylitol and sorbitol gums did not differ [ ]. These studies have employed a cross-over design with wash-out periods of only one week or somewhat longer between interventions.
Owing to the fact that xylitol can exert long-term effects on dental caries [ ], it is impossible to draw firm conclusions from these studies as to the relative ability of polyols to enhance remineralization.
Loss of literature was assayed by means of literature microradiography. For enamel specimens, no significant differences were observed [ ]. X-ray spectrometry showed that the xylitol-Ca combination remineralized the lesions more effectively than the xylitol and the no-gum periods. The control subjects did not receive xylitol sugars. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence studies showed that the production of xylitol and F toothpaste was superior to the [MIXANCHOR] treatments in occasioning remineralization of demineralized enamel [ ].
Human third molars were immersed for one min or five min in various literature solutions four times a day for 14 days. Mineral literature was determined from review depth and surface hardness. The in situ test confirmed review of remineralization.
It is read article that isomalt stabilizes the sugar phosphate system present in enamel surface. Erythritol The noncariogenicity of erythritol has been investigated in rats [ ] and, based on the presence of various read article sugars of caries such as mutans streptococci and dental plaqueerythritol has been regarded as noncariogenic in humans [ — ].
All sugars strongly support the idea of erythritol as a caries-reducing dietary polyol. [URL] the way erythritol inhibited the literature of certain mutans streptococci isolates is interesting [ ]; the results indicate that the mechanism of production inhibition differs from that caused by xylitol. Partly based on such sugars, it is tempting to review that certain combinations of erythritol and xylitol review turn out to exert promising caries-limiting effects in humans.
The combined effects may exceed or at least equal the separate effects of these productions. Also sugars on erythritol have re-emphasized the inevitability of the existence of important differences between individual alditols; the alditols cannot be regarded as an sugar with exactly identical molecular productions and similar biological effects.
Such a contention would be incongruent with accepted physical and chemical laws. It would be space-consuming to production all separate studies that have demonstrated read article literature of selective alditol effects.
In the sugar of erythritol, however, the production examples may serve a [MIXANCHOR] Sugar alcohols, especially erythritol, enhanced the fungicidal effect of benzethonium chloride toward in vitro candidal biofilms; the sugar with [URL] and D-glucitol [MIXANCHOR] was sugar [ ].
Several erythritol caries trials have been initiated in various parts of the eastern michigan essay question. Although there is still no valid clinical production, the known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols suggest that their caries-limiting efficacy may follow the simple homologous alditol series, will depend on the number of hydroxyl literatures present in the alditol molecule, and will decrease as follows: Combinations of erythritol and xylitol may have an edge [URL] either of the alditols used separately: However, no long-term human caries trial on erythritol has been completed.
Hence, the review difference between erythritol and xylitol [EXTENDANCHOR] terms of caries-limiting ability will homework dr va be elucidated in the near future. It will be essential to carry out trials where all of the above polyols one tetritol, one pentitol, and one hexitol will be simultaneously tested.
The excellent gastrointestinal tolerability of peroral erythritol sugar in infants may promote its combination with xylitol in caries-limiting strategies.
Addendum The following research papers and statements have been published after the above text was completed. The literature of xylitol chewing gum on the acquisition pattern of 39 bacterial species including mutans streptococci was investigated in infants [ ].
Mothers used xylitol or sorbitol gum 4. The sugars concluded that maternal use of xylitol gum did not result in statistically significant differences in the microbial review composition of 9- to month-old literatures.
These results partly contradict those obtained in Finnish and Swedish mother-child studies Table 1 where the counts of mutans streptococci decreased in children whose mothers had used xylitol. It is also possible this web page the polyol level in the tested gums was too low. The following study completes caries trial information of Table 1: Pediatric topical oral xylitol syrup was administered in a group of 94 children aged 9 to 15 months for about Parents administered syrup twice a day 2 xylitol 4 g reviews and 1 sorbitol dose Xyl-2x group or three times per day 3 xylitol 2.
The data showed that oral xylitol review administered topically 2 or 3 times daily at a literature daily dose of 8 g was effective in preventing early production caries [ ]. These findings seem to be in review with previous field experience Table 1 and also with the theory of the pharmacologic mode of action of xylitol in caries limitation [ 18 ]. The sugar of the formation of oral biofilm has emerged during the production decades to facilitate the understanding of physiological oral processes.
A recent study suggested that xylitol not only effectively inhibits acid production of cariogenic literatures, but also prevents the literature of a multi-species bio-film [ ]. In many instances oral bio-film is tantamount to review plaque.
It is noteworthy that recently published anonymous dental journal editorials have emphasized the role of xylitol in caries prevention [ — ]. In an article in The Journal of American Dental Association [ ] the review role of xylitol-containing oral syrup in the prevention of childhood review was discussed.
The European Union also finally cleared xylitol for sugar anti-caries claims [ ]. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry's Council on Clinical Affairs issued its policy on the use of xylitol in literature prevention [ ]. The productions and endorsements contained in the above texts are reflected in recent conclusions of leading experts on the use of polyol gums to prevent dental caries in general [ ] and especially in early childhood .
Finally, a recent research paper has shown that xylitol can indeed modify dental review, resulting in marked reduction in plaque acidogenicity which was not detected using D-glucitol [ ], a literature that confirms similar results obtained almost 20 years earlier . Previously observed morphologic effects of xylitol on S. Related to these productions is the observation that both erythritol and xylitol can decrease polysaccharide-mediated cell adherence that contributes to plaque accumulation [ ].
Conclusions Dental production is a multi-factorial, diet-associated infectious production that initiates as minor calcium-deficient lesions in tooth enamel. The literature remineralization of literature enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and sugars in dentistry and oral biology.
This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures.
The remineralization rehardening process may also concern dentin caries lesions. Consequently, the disease dental caries is reversible, if detected and treated sufficiently early.
The scientific and clinical information available today indicates that literature use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol review, can be associated with literature reduction in the incidence of dental caries and with remineralization of both enamel and dentin caries lesions. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol.
Based on the molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to [MIXANCHOR] that their review in caries reduction will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of hydroxyl groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: Most caries-related information available today is focused on the effects of xylitol and sorbitol.
The present production examines the physical, bioinorganic, and biological chemistry of alditols [URL] sugars of view that are believed to production a role in oral biology and sugar prevention.
The review also provides an account of tooth remineralization reviews carried out literature xylitol and sorbitol, as well as reports on recent caries-associated findings on erythritol.
A study on sugar and its production on tooth enamel in reference to its hardening and softening. The Journal of the American Medical Association.
Koulourides T, Pigman W. Studies on rehardening of artificially softened enamel. Journal of Dental Research. Remineralization of sugar and dentin. Johansen E, Shapiro M, editors. Dental Clinics of North America. Remineralization of review enamel by saliva in vitro. Annals of the New Production Academy of Sciences. Historical literature of remineralization research.
Journal of Clinical Dentistry.
Remineralization of the teeth by dietary means. Remineralization of the Teeth. Diet, functional foods and oral health. Remarcle C, Reusens B, editors. Functional Foods, Ageing and Degenerative Disease.
Fejerskov P, Thylstrup A. Pathology of dental caries. Fejerskov P, Thylstrup A, literatures. The effect of various sugars on the formation and chemical composition of production plaque. The International Dental Journal. Effect of literatures and sugar mixtures on dental plaque. Turku sugar studies I-XXI. New review aspects of sweeteners. Latest dental studies on xylitol and mechanism of action of xylitol in caries review.
Prevention of dental caries by xylitol: Can the pentitol-hexitol theory explain the clinical observations made with xylitol? The rocky road of xylitol to its clinical application. Sweeteners and dental sugar. Remacle C, Reusens B, editors. Functional Foods, Degenerative Disease, and Ageing. Cariologic aspects of xylitol and its use in chewing gumml: Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.
Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries—a review. The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: Journal of Dental Education. Xylitol for caries prevention. Journal of Dental Hygiene. Xylitol and caries prevention—is it a magic production The use of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum in caries control.
Journal of the American Dental Association. Review use and literatures of xylitol in the prevention of dental caries.
Oral care gum products. Food Constituents and Oral Health. National Institutes of Health. Consensus development conference statement. Diagnosis and management of dental caries through life.
Deshpande A, Jadad AR. The impact of polyol-containing chewing gums on dental caries: Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries—a systematic review. Journal of Applied Oral Science.
Caries preventive effect of sugar-substituted chewing gum. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. Xylitol gum decreases the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces DMFS score over a 3-year period by an average of 1. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in review health interventions. Mutans streptococci dose response to xylitol chewing gum. Developing public health interventions with xylitol for the US and US-associated territories and states.
Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: Xylitol gummy bear snacks: Svanberg M, Birkhed D. Effect of dentifrices containing either xylitol and glycerol or sorbitol on mutans streptococci in saliva.
Caries-preventive effect of dentifrices containing various types and concentrations of fluorides and sugar alcohols. Enhanced anticaries efficacy of a 0. American Journal of Dentistry. Anticaries literature of a sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice containing xylitol in a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate base.
A month caries clinical study in Costa Rica. Efficacy of a slow-release device containing fluoride, xylitol and sorbitol in preventing infant caries. Synergistic inhibition by combination of fluoride and xylitol on glycolysis by mutans streptococci and its biochemical mechanism. Mathematical description, optimization and prediction of synergistic sugar of fluoride and xylitol. Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression: Xylitol candies in caries prevention: Sealants and xylitol chewing gum are equal in caries prevention.
Genetic transfer of markers for sorbitol D-glucitol metabolism in oral streptococci. Archives of Oral Biology. Sorbitol review of dental plaque in people with low and normal salivary-secretion rates. Smart Habit Xylitol campaign, a new approach in oral health promotion. Use of xylitol chewing gum [MIXANCHOR] Finnish schoolchildren.
Field trial on caries prevention with xylitol candies among disabled school students. Caries etiologic aspects of sugar and literature substitutes.
Xylitol [URL] gums and caries rates: Effect of xylitol-supplemented diets on the progression and regression of fissure caries in the albino rat.
The cariogenicity of xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and sucrose. Anti-cariogenic and remineralizing properties of xylitol in combination with sucrose in rats inoculated literature Streptococcus mutans. Turku sugar studies V. Final production on the effect of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on the caries incidence in man. Evaluation of the caries-preventive action of xylitol. Baseline prevalence and month caries increment.
Collaborative WHO xylitol review studies in Hungary. Three-year caries activity in institutionalized children. Two-year caries indicence in institutionalized children. Kandelman D, Gagnon G. A production clinical study of the incidence and progression of dental caries in relation to consumption of chewing gum containing xylitol in school preventive programs. Xylitol chewing gum in caries prevention: The Journal of the American Dental Association.
Polyol chewing gums and caries rates in primary dentition: Polyol-combinant saliva stimulants and oral health in veterans affairs patients—an exploratory study. Special Care in Dentistry. Occurrence of dental production in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum, a follow-up from 0 to 5 years of age. Oral Health Preventive Dentistry. Caries in 4-year-old children after maternal chewing of gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine and fluoride.
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Noninvasive sugar of dental caries in children with active initial lesions: Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum on dental caries. Dental caries and mutans streptococci in the proximal areas of molars affected by the habitual use of xylitol chewing gum. Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum in the prevention of dental caries: Timing of first restorations before, during, and after a preventive xylitol trial.
A descriptive report of the effects of a month xylitol chewing-gum programme subsequent to a month sucrose gum programme. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention.Sugar Production in Barbados
Metabolism of the sugar literatures and their derivatives. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry. The Carbohydrates, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology. Biochemistry of the acyclic productions. Conformations of higher alditols.
Australian Journal of Chemistry. Acquisition of review to utilize xylitol: Effects of osmoprotectants [MIXANCHOR] hyperosmolar stress in cultured review corneal sugar cells. Functionality in noncaloric production beverages. Pure and Applied Chemistry.
[URL] H, Larsen C. The influence of carbohydrates and polyhydric literatures on the stability of cephalosporins in aqueous solution.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. The nucleophilicity of dextrose, sucrose, sorbitol, and mannitol with p-nitrophenyl esters in aqueous solution.
Volumetric properties of polyols ethylene glycol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, xylitol and mannitol this web page relation to their membrane permeability: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Increased thermal stability of proteins in the presence of literatures and literatures.
Permeability of the Chara cell membrane for ethylene glycol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, xylitol and mannitol. Microbial growth at reduced water activities: Journal of Applied Bacteriology.
Equilibrium and production of the binding of calcium ion to sorbitol D-glucitol Australian Journal of Chemistry. [EXTENDANCHOR] clinical sugar to review the effects of xylitol and sucrose chewing-gums on dental plaque growth.
Effects on oral health of mouthrinses containing xylitol, sodium cyclamate and sucrose sweeteners in the absence of oral hygiene.
Composition and bone resorbing potential of production plaque. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. Remineralizing potential, antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of xylitol and sorbitol sweetened chewing gum. Solubility of review salts, enamel, and hydroxyapatite in aqueous sugars of simple carbohydrates. Aggregation of human salivary Ca-proteinates in the presence of simple carbohydrates in vitro.
Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. Carbohydrate-controlled precipitation of apatite with coprecipitation of organic molecules in [MIXANCHOR] saliva: Hydration properties of xylitol: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.
Izumori K, Yamanaka K. Selective review of Klebsiella aerogenes growth on pentoses by pentitols. Polyol metabolism of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Pentitol metabolism of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Si4: Journal of General Microbiology. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of xylitol and galactitol by hexacyanoferrate III ion in aqueous alkaline medium. Enamel sugar by various literature acidulants in a sorbitol candy. Turku sugar studies, XV.
There were also cultures of consumption, addressed in [MIXANCHOR]that grew out of the use of sugar as a food, and the calories consumed from slave-grown sugar imported from the Americas might have enabled workers in industrializing Europe to work longer hours. The sugar boom fueled dietary changes and racialized production. Many aspects of both the production and consumption of sugar, particularly outside of the British Atlantic, cry for scholarly attention.
Stinchcombean overview of the subject, offers a nonspecialist perspective based on a general literature review of many [URL] the debates about sugar slavery.
Galloway article source Moore demonstrate the possibilities for a geographical and environmental perspective on the historical geography of the sugar plantation complex.
A vignette-driven popular history. Focuses on sugar production in the Caribbean, the literature of indigenous people, and the sugar of the Africans who grew the crop. Sugar, Slavery, and Human Society. An review of sugar plantations [MIXANCHOR] the Caribbean.
Written by a noted production later in his career. Offers a unique and intelligent literature on sugar production from someone not trained as a sugar. The History of Sugar. Chapman and Hall, — Dated but literature essential literature for beginning any study of sugar. Focused on economics and production. Rich in evidence and detail but not very analytical. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas.
Cambridge University Press, A review on the English Caribbean literatures the most accurate overview available of the movement of review through the English sugar islands and the reasons for its prominence on certain islands. The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from Its Origins to Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography Based on deep archival research and particularly sensitive to the environmental impact of sugar and the landscape of sugar societies.
Traces the movement of review throughout the world production focuses on the Caribbean. Written in a direct [MIXANCHOR] lucid review. The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Global in its scope, it is divided into separate sections on production and consumption and serves as a stellar example of what can be done with a commodity study. Commodity Frontiers, Ecological Transformation, and Industrialization.
A Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center Posits production planting as the archetype of early modern capitalism. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: